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Milián et al. Advanced Synthesis %@26 Catalysis. 2022;n/a(n/a):. Synthesis of Phenanthrene-Based Polycycles by Gold(I)-Catalyzed Cyclization of Biphenyl-Embedded Trienynes.

Publicaciones > Milián et al

Synthesis of Phenanthrene-Based Polycycles by Gold(I)-Catalyzed Cyclization of Biphenyl-Embedded Trienynes.

Resumen

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Virumbrales et al. Organic Letters. 2022;:. Gold(I) Catalysis Applied to the Stereoselective Synthesis of Indeno%@5B2,1-b%@5Dthiochromene Derivatives and Seleno Analogues

Publicaciones > Virumbrales et al

Gold(I) Catalysis Applied to the Stereoselective Synthesis of Indeno%@5B2,1-b%@5Dthiochromene Derivatives and Seleno Analogues

Resumen

No hay resumen

Sánchez-Pavón et al. Dyes and Pigments 2022;205:110323. Highly efficient unbridged D-A%@2B(D) chromophores based on the quinolizinium cation for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications

Publicaciones > Sánchez-Pavón et al

Highly efficient unbridged D-A%@2B(D) chromophores based on the quinolizinium cation for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications

Resumen

Novel charged D-A%@2B chromophores based on quinolizinium cations as acceptor unit have been prepared by treating haloquinolizinium salts with N-heteroarylstannanes under Stille reaction conditions. This approach provides an easy access to potential one-dimensional D-A%@2B and two-dimensional D-A%@2B-D chromophores in which the acceptor moiety (A%@2B) is the simple azonia cation and the donors are different π-rich N-heterocycles. The first hyperpolarizabilities (β) were measured by hyper-Rayleigh scattering experiments and the experimental data confirmed that the inherent polarization between donor and acceptor fragments modulates the NLO properties. The electronic structures and properties (including both the linear and nonlinear optical properties) of the quinolizinium chromophores were examined by theoretical (DFT, HF and MP2) calculations. A promising strategy for the rational design of D-A building blocks to create new organic-based NLO materials is proposed.

Sans-Panadés et al. Org Lett. 2022;24(31):5860-5865. Synthesis of BN-Polyarenes by a Mild Borylative Cyclization Cascade.

Publicaciones > Sans-Panadés et al

Synthesis of BN-Polyarenes by a Mild Borylative Cyclization Cascade.

Universidad de Alcalá (IRYCIS). Departamento de Química Orgánica y Química Inorgánica, Instituto de Investigación Química "Andrés M. del Río" (IQAR). Campus Científico-Tecnológico, Facultad de Farmacia. Autovía A-II, Km 33.1, 28805-Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain.

Abstract

Reaction of BCl(3) with suitably substituted o-alkynylanilines promotes a cascade reaction in which BN-polycyclic compounds are obtained via the formation of two new cycles and three new bonds in a single operational step. The reaction is highly efficient and takes place at room temperature, providing a very mild and straightforward strategy for the preparation of BN-aromatic compounds, which can be further transformed into a variety of BN-PAHs with different polycyclic cores and substituents.

Kopytina et al. Front Pharmacol. 2022;13:868374. Steviol glycosides as an alternative osmotic agent for peritoneal dialysis fluid.

Publicaciones > Kopytina et al

Steviol glycosides as an alternative osmotic agent for peritoneal dialysis fluid.

1. Department of Immunology, Molecular Biology Research Center Severo Ochoa (CBMSO), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.  2. Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland GmbH, Frankfurter, St. Wendel, Germany.  3. Department of Nephrology, IdiPAZ Research Institute, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.  4. Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Alcalá (IRYCIS), Madrid, Spain.  5. Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland GmbH, St. Wendel, Germany.

Abstract

Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a renal replacement technique that requires repeated exposure of the peritoneum to hyperosmolar PD fluids (PDFs). Unfortunately, it promotes alterations of the peritoneal membrane (PM) that affects its functionality, including mesothelial-mesenchymal transition (MMT) of mesothelial cells (MCs), inflammation, angiogenesis, and fibrosis. Glucose is the most used osmotic agent, but it is known to be at least partially responsible, together with its degradation products (GDP), for those changes. Therefore, there is a need for more biocompatible osmotic agents to better maintain the PM. Herein we evaluated the biocompatibility of Steviol glycosides (SG)-based fluids. Methods: The ultrafiltration and transport capacities of SG-containing and glucose-based fluids were analyzed using artificial membranes and an in vivo mouse model, respectively. To investigate the biocompatibility of the fluids, Met-5A and human omental peritoneal MCs (HOMCs) were exposed in vitro to different types of glucose-based PDFs (conventional 4.25% glucose solution with high-GDP level and biocompatible 2.3% glucose solution with low-GDP level), SG-based fluids or treated with TGF-β1. Mice submitted to surgery of intraperitoneal catheter insertion were treated for 40 days with SG- or glucose-based fluids. Peritoneal tissues were collected to determine thickness, MMT, angiogenesis, as well as peritoneal washings to analyze inflammation. Results: Dialysis membrane experiments demonstrated that SG-based fluids at 1.5%, 1%, and 0.75% had a similar trend in weight gain, based on curve slope, as glucose-based fluids. Analyzing transport capacity in vivo, 1% and 0.75% SG-based fluid-exposed nephrectomized mice extracted a similar amount of urea as the glucose 2.3% group. In vitro, PDF with high-glucose (4.25%) and high-GDP content induced mesenchymal markers and angiogenic factors (Snail1, Fibronectin, VEGF-A, FGF-2) and downregulates the epithelial marker E-Cadherin. In contrast, exposition to low-glucose-based fluids with low-GDP content or SG-based fluids showed higher viability and had less MMT. In vivo, SG-based fluids preserved MC monolayer, induced less PM thickness, angiogenesis, leukocyte infiltration, inflammatory cytokines release, and MMT compared with glucose-based fluids. Conclusion: SG showed better biocompatibility as an osmotic agent than glucose in vitro and in vivo, therefore, it could alternatively substitute glucose in PDF.

Altarejos et al. European Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2022;2022(30):e202200521. Synthesis of Tri- and Tetrasubstituted Alkenyl Boronates from Alkynes

Publicaciones > Altarejos et al

Synthesis of Tri- and Tetrasubstituted Alkenyl Boronates from Alkynes

Resumen

The synthesis of organoboron compounds have attracted the attention of the synthetic community. In particular, molecules with C(sp2)-B bonds enable the transformation to new C?C or C-heteroatom bonds by well-established methodologies. Alkenyl boronates have the possibility for further conversion of the boron moiety or functionalization of the double bond. This review gives an overview on the recent methodologies for the selective preparation of the challenging highly substituted alkenyl boronates from alkynes.

Milián et al. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2022;:e202205651. Metal-Free Temperature-Controlled Regiodivergent Borylative Cyclizations of Enynes: BCl(3) -Promoted Skeletal Rearrangement.

Publicaciones > Milián et al

Metal-Free Temperature-Controlled Regiodivergent Borylative Cyclizations of Enynes: BCl(3) -Promoted Skeletal Rearrangement.

Universidad de Alcalá (IRYCIS). Departamento de Química Orgánica y Química Inorgánica, Instituto de Investigación Química "Andrés M. del Río" (IQAR). Campus Científico-Tecnológico, Facultad de Farmacia, Autovía A-II, Km 33.1, 28805-Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain.

Abstract

Metal-free borylative cyclization of biphenyl-embedded 1,3,5-trien-7-ynes in the presence of simple and inexpensive BCl(3) provided synthetically useful borylated building blocks. The outcome of the process depends on the reaction temperature, with borylated phenanthrenes obtained at 60 °C and phenanthrene-fused borylated cyclobutanes formed at 0 °C. Based on DFT calculations, a mechanism for these novel transformations has been proposed, which involves an uncommon skeletal rearrangement, including migration of a methyl group and alkyne fragmentation, unprecedented in BCl(3) -promoted cyclization reactions.

Salardón et al. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 2022;10(3):107486. Electrochemically driven one-pot oxidative conversion of arylhydrazines into aromatic iodides

Publicaciones > Salardón et al

Electrochemically driven one-pot oxidative conversion of arylhydrazines into aromatic iodides

Resumen

The efficient metal-free electrosynthesis of 2,4-dinitrophenyl iodide is here reported starting from 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Surprisingly this dinitrated arylhydrazine minimizes, under the applied experimental conditions, any anodic multilayered film formation. This sustainable iodide-mediated oxidative dehydrazination enables coupling reaction of electrogenerated iodine with aryl radicals from electron-deficient arylhydrazines employing electricity as the driving force and an inexpensive halogen source. A mechanistic proposal explaining the formation of aryl iodides is presented and discussed.

Ortiz. Clin Kidney J. 2022;15(3):372-387. RICORS2040: the need for collaborative research in chronic kidney disease.

Publicaciones > Ortiz

RICORS2040: the need for collaborative research in chronic kidney disease.

Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a silent and poorly known killer. The current concept of CKD is relatively young and uptake by the public, physicians and health authorities is not widespread. Physicians still confuse CKD with chronic kidney insufficiency or failure. For the wider public and health authorities, CKD evokes kidney replacement therapy (KRT). In Spain, the prevalence of KRT is 0.13%. Thus health authorities may consider CKD a non-issue: very few persons eventually need KRT and, for those in whom kidneys fail, the problem is 'solved' by dialysis or kidney transplantation. However, KRT is the tip of the iceberg in the burden of CKD. The main burden of CKD is accelerated ageing and premature death. The cut-off points for kidney function and kidney damage indexes that define CKD also mark an increased risk for all-cause premature death. CKD is the most prevalent risk factor for lethal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the factor that most increases the risk of death in COVID-19, after old age. Men and women undergoing KRT still have an annual mortality that is 10- to 100-fold higher than similar-age peers, and life expectancy is shortened by ~40 years for young persons on dialysis and by 15 years for young persons with a functioning kidney graft. CKD is expected to become the fifth greatest global cause of death by 2040 and the second greatest cause of death in Spain before the end of the century, a time when one in four Spaniards will have CKD. However, by 2022, CKD will become the only top-15 global predicted cause of death that is not supported by a dedicated well-funded Centres for Biomedical Research (CIBER) network structure in Spain. Realizing the underestimation of the CKD burden of disease by health authorities, the Decade of the Kidney initiative for 2020-2030 was launched by the American Association of Kidney Patients and the European Kidney Health Alliance. Leading Spanish kidney researchers grouped in the kidney collaborative research network Red de Investigación Renal have now applied for the Redes de Investigación Cooperativa Orientadas a Resultados en Salud (RICORS) call for collaborative research in Spain with the support of the Spanish Society of Nephrology, Federación Nacional de Asociaciones para la Lucha Contra las Enfermedades del Riñón and ONT: RICORS2040 aims to prevent the dire predictions for the global 2040 burden of CKD from becoming true.

Ortiz et al. Nefrologia. 2022;42(1):65-84. CKD: The burden of disease invisible to research funders.

Publicaciones > article

CKD: The burden of disease invisible to research funders.

Abstract

The uptake of the current concept of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by the public, physicians and health authorities is low. Physicians still mix up CKD with chronic kidney insufficiency or failure. In a recent manuscript, only 23% of participants in a cohort of persons with CKD had been diagnosed by their physicians as having CKD while 29% has a diagnosis of cancer and 82% had a diagnosis of hypertension. For the wider public and health authorities, CKD evokes kidney replacement therapy (KRT). In Spain, the prevalence of KRT is 0.13%. A prevalent view is that for those in whom kidneys fail, the problem is "solved" by dialysis or kidney transplantation. However, the main burden of CKD is accelerated aging and all-cause and cardiovascular premature death. CKD is the most prevalent risk factor for lethal COVID-19 and the factor that most increases the risk of death in COVID-19, after old age. Moreover, men and women undergoing KRT still have an annual mortality which is 10-100-fold higher than similar age peers, and life expectancy is shortened by around 40 years for young persons on dialysis and by 15 years for young persons with a functioning kidney graft. CKD is expected to become the fifth global cause of death by 2040 and the second cause of death in Spain before the end of the century, a time when 1 in 4 Spaniards will have CKD. However, by 2022, CKD will become the only top-15 global predicted cause of death that is not supported by a dedicated well-funded CIBER network research structure in Spain. Leading Spanish kidney researchers grouped in the kidney collaborative research network REDINREN have now applied for the RICORS call of collaborative research in Spain with the support of the Spanish Society of Nephrology, ALCER and ONT: RICORS2040 aims to prevent the dire predictions for the global 2040 burden of CKD from becoming true. However, only the highest level of research funding through the CIBER will allow to adequately address the issue before it is too late.